There is great variation in the possible effects of a brain injury on an individual. Injuries
may result in some degree of impairment in the following functions:

    Memory - Memory difficulties are probably the most common characteristic of students
with brain injury, and present the greatest challenge for learning. The primary problem is a
decreased ability to store information and recall it at a later time. The storage and
retrieval of pre-injury memories or previously acquired knowledge may be surprisingly

    Distractibility – Poor attention and concentration, often caused by poor filtering or
processing of sensory information, may reduce the ability to focus long enough for learning
to take place.

    Speed of Thinking – New information may take longer to process effectively.
    Communication functions such as writing, reading, speaking, listening, and
"pragmatics" may be impaired. Examples of communication "pragmatics" problems are interrupting, talking
out of turn, dominating discussions, speaking too loudly or rudely, or standing too closely
to the listener.

    Spatial Reasoning refers to the ability to recognize the shapes of objects, judge
distances accurately, navigate, read a map, visualize images, comprehend mechanical
functions, or recognize position in space. Mathematic abilities are linked to spatial

    Conceptualization – Deficits of this type may reduce the ability to categorize,
sequence, abstract, prioritize, and/or generalize information.

    Executive Functions - The ability to set goals, plan, and work methodically toward a
goal, especially with any mental flexibility, may be impaired. The difficulty may show as
disorganization and poor problem solving and judgment especially planning and budgeting time and money.

    Psychosocial - Some common types of psychosocial disabilities may appear as depression
or withdrawal, poor insight, poor reality orientation, low frustration tolerance, heightened
irritability, restlessness, anxiety, emotional instability, impulsiveness, poor social
judgment, disinhibited sexual behavior, euphoria, apathy, fatigue, and/or poor personal

    Movement, Vision, Hearing, and Physical Disabilities - The brain controls all bodily movement and perceives all sensory information, Thus, a myriad of disabilities related to movement and sensation may result from a brain injury.
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